Consensus Definition: 471 Samples

Blockchain networks rely on consensus algorithms to reach agreement among various distributed nodes. A consensus mechanism such as proof of work or proof of stake secures the network and prevents unauthorized users from validating bad transactions. The mechanism also enables agreement on the network even when no single node is in charge. Consensus is a decision-making approach that seeks to secure the support of the whole group for the decision at hand.

define consensus

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In vitro assessment of probiotic attributes for strains contained in commercial formulations

The mechanism also maintains the integrity of decisions taken by the agreeing nodes in the fault-tolerant system. Consensus algorithms are vital in large-scale, fault-tolerant systems because they enable a set of distributed/replicated machines or servers to work as a coherent group and agree on system state, even in the presence of failures or outages. To achieve this, the algorithm sets a threshold, or the number of member machines that must reach consensus or agreement. Consensusmeans substantial agreement has been reached by directly and materially affected interest categories. This signifies the concurrence of more than a simple majority, but not necessarily unanimity.

define consensus

Lievin-Le Moal, V., Sarrazin-Davila, L. E. & Servin, A. L. An experimental study and a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the antisecretory activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB against nonrotavirus diarrhea. Pediatrics 120, e795–803 . Xiao, S. D. Multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of heat-killed Lactobacillus acidophilus LB in patients with chronic diarrhea. 20, 253–260 .

For example, impaired ability to eat leads to participation restrictions or modifications in childcare, school, and other environments that involve mealtime interactions. In later life, PFD can impair attainment of social relationships and employment . Because the definition of disability is dependent on environmental factors , culturally specific feeding behaviors in the absence of dysfunction do not qualify as PFD.

These authors suggested that a more precise, age-specific definition of sedentary behavior in children may improve overall physical activity classification in the population and may be of value in quantifying the health burden of sedentary behaviors in youth. In contrast, using whole-room calorimetry as the criterion measure, Reilly et al. and others concluded that the current MET threshold recommendation of ≤1.5 METs seems appropriate for young what is faucetcoin children (mean age of 5.3 years). Other research supports the inclusion of postural condition (“while in a sitting or reclining posture”) in the sedentary behavior definition instead of just using a definition based on energy cost (≤1.5 METs) . Despite a few inconsistencies, in general, there was broad support in the published literature for the SBRN definition of sedentary behavior, at least in individuals without mobility impairment.

Process models

Some consensus decision-making bodies use a system of colored cards to indicate speaker priority. For instance, red cards to indicate feedback on a breach in rules or decorum, yellow cards for clarifying questions, and green cards for desire to speak. Ideally, differences are resolved by discussion. The facilitator (“clerk” or “convenor” in the Quaker model) identifies areas of agreement and names disagreements to push discussion deeper. Groups that require unanimity commonly use a core set of procedures depicted in this flow chart. Limiting the option of blocking to decisions that are substantial to the mission or operation of the group and not allowing blocking on routine decisions.

  • Sabharwal, H., Cichon, C., Olschlager, T. A., Sonnenborn, U.
  • Consensus requires that all views and objections be considered, and that an effort be made toward their resolution.
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  • They may require special feeding equipment, positioning, or feeding strategies .
  • Validators get a reward — or their stake increases — proportionate to their bets based on the blocks added to the blockchain.
  • It is hoped that these consensus definitions will help facilitate standardization efforts, reduce confusion, and advance initiatives and research related to sedentary behavior.

Because CFUs before the inactivation process could underestimate the true biomass, flow cytometry might be a more suitable method. Inactivation was performed in this case by spray drying that resulted in a mixture of live, full piliated cells and inactivated cells lacking pili surface appendages (as described in Kiekens et al.75). The bacteria were spotted on a gold-coated membrane, which is especially visible after processing. Adapted with permission from ref.75, Wiley. Other processing technologies can provide useful alternatives to thermal sterilization or pasteurization56. Non-thermal inactivation techniques were designed to obtain safe and stable foods with preserved overall quality and value while maintaining their sensory characteristics close to those of their fresh equivalents.

Sedentary Behavior Research Network (SBRN) – Terminology Consensus Project process and outcome

No clear consensus exists over the next stage of the plan. There is a general consensus among teachers about the need for greater security in schools. Needs to review the security of your connection before proceeding. This shows grade level based on the word’s complexity. These examples are from corpora and from sources on the web.

In some cases, these mechanisms could be similar to those known for probiotics3,78. Such mechanisms might act independently or in combination. Understanding the major effector molecules involved in eliciting such beneficial effects is important information to ensure that a commercial postbiotic product retains the attributes necessary for efficacy. Because postbiotics are inanimate, these bioactive molecules must be synthesized by the progenitor microorganisms prior to inactivation, and in sufficient amounts to induce a beneficial effect. Here, we review possible mechanisms that could drive postbiotic efficacy. Overall, five main modes of action are considered, as depicted in Fig.4.

define consensus

In the USA, the Food and Drug Administration has not specifically addressed postbiotics. A search shows no mention of the term ‘postbiotic’ on the FDA website. As postbiotics can be developed under different regulatory categories52, the FDA will probably approach postbiotics based on the regulations that pertain to the specific regulatory category chosen for a product under development. The product’s intended use, safety and efficacy will need to meet the standard for the applicable regulatory category. Thus, for example, if a postbiotic is to be used as a food ingredient, it will either need to undergo premarket approval as a food additive or need to be evaluated by experts to determine whether it is generally recognized as safe.


MNS members used consensus decision-making from the beginning as a non-religious adaptation of the Quaker decision-making they were used to. MNS trained the anti-nuclear Clamshell Alliance and Abalone Alliance to use consensus, and in 1977 published Resource Manual for a Living Revolution, which included a section on consensus. Consensus decision-making, as a self-described practice, originates from several nonviolent, direct action groups that were active in the Civil rights, Peace and Women’s movements, themselves part of the larger U.S. counterculture of the 1960s. The practice gained popularity in the 1970s through the anti-nuclear movement, and peaked in popularity in the early 1980s. Consensus spread abroad through the anti-globalization and climate movements, and has become normalized in anti-authoritarian spheres in conjunction with affinity groups and ideas of participatory democracy and prefigurative politics.

Consensus definition

Boulloche, J., Mouterde, O. & Mallet, E. Management of acute diarrhea in infants and toddlers – controlled study of the antidiarrheal efficacy of killed Lactobacillus acidophilus versus a placebo and a reference agent . 41, 457–463 . Roy, P., Aubert-Jacquin, C., Avart, C.

For the majority of products with a long shelf life, probiotic die-off is inevitable during storage. Because the rate of death during storage depends on the physiological characteristics of the probiotic strain and the conditions of storage , it is difficult to generalize about the level of dead cells contained across probiotic products at the end of their shelf life. Responsible probiotic manufacturers often formulate their products with substantial overages to ensure that the labelled count of viable cells is met at the end of its shelf life.


Consensus was used in the 1999 Seattle WTO protests, which inspired the S11 in 2000 to do so too. Consensus was used at the first Camp for Climate Action and subsequent camps. Occupy Wall Street made use of consensus, popularizing the people’s microphone and hand signals. Has meant no determined action against inequalities by any Labour government. There was no international consensus on how to deal with the situation. Consensus, agreement, accordance, unanimity, concord, harmony.

Scientific Opinion on the safety of heat-treated milk products fermented with Bacteroides xylanisolvens DSM as a novel food. 13, 3956 . Japanese companies normally use consensus decision-making, meaning that unanimous support on the board of directors is sought for any decision. A ringi-sho is a circulation document used to obtain agreement. It must first be signed by the lowest level manager, and then upwards, and may need to be revised and the process started over.

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